ޥˡŪ׹ͤȤˤĤơйʹΡ45ȯޤ


1800̾ˡϿƤ롢ܳʼкޥǤ

ɴ˾ϡ̵ϿǤޤΤǡСʲɼϿ򤪴ꤤޤ

 ˡŪ׹ͤȤˤĤơйʡΡ

ϻäν罻μ̿ɮԻơˤϡͤˤ롢Ū۲Ȱƣͺ߷פϻäν罻Ǥ

ϻäν罻ϡƣͺɽ1ĤǡͭϰۤȤɤʤŰŪ˲Ūʡܤ¾¿Υޥ󥷥ۤȤ礭㤦ꥸʥƥʤǤ

޼̤˷Ƥ줿ηʪϡðۤϷˡʥե졼ˤ빽ޤƤΤǤϷϷˡΩŪʥåɤΥ줬ɬŪޤ

ռˤȤäơˤäưۤʤ¿ͤʽͷФƤޤ

ޥ󥷥Ǥʤ顢޼̤ȤϷǥΤᡢƸͤŪǤϤʤΤǡͷƤΤ褦ʡ

ȤäơͷƤȤϡϤ㤦罻ȤƤ˭ܤʡȤƤ̥ŪʽޤˤʤäƤΤȻפޤ

ϻäλˤ뤳ηʪϡؤνͤβؤνͤΥƥ饹ȤʤäƤΤǤΥƥ饹鸫ͤʤϡʤΤȻפޤ

ƣͺϡȳؤŪʷ۲ȤȤʤ줿ʤΤǤĤơ۲Ȥϡȶ礭

ޤ۲ȤȤʤ뤿ΥΩĤɬܻʤǤۻλʤ٤⡢ޤȳؼԤˤϰŪ٤ȤʤäƤޤ

̤οͤʤ˾Ū̵ϴ򴶤ߤΤ񤷤Ķ桢

͡ʺǤˤʤ顢ƣϡ1顦2ۻλʤ

Τߤʤ餺ñʤʼԤȤ礭Ķ롢ˤ̾ĤۤɤŪ۲ȤȤʤޤ

˵ܤ鸫ȡϫϢ³Τ褦˸ΤǤƣ󤴼Ȥϡۤɶϫ򤷤ĤϤʤȻפäƤ줿褦Ǥ

餯ۤǤޤʤäǤϤʤȻפޤ

ʤΤ̴ɤƤȤϡ˵ܤ鸫жϫ˸ΤǤ⡢ܿͤˤȤäƤϡŨ̴ˤ빬ʡʻ֤ʤΤ⤷ޤ

ΤξʤϤǹԤƣȾǤϤʤȻפޤ

줫⡢̥͡λʺ³ƹԤäߤΤȻפޤ

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֥ɮԤˡˡˡԤɮƤޤȤ櫓ȡ꡼ΤŸǹ줿ַˡԡפɬȻפޤ󡢽ŹǼˤȤäƤĺФ¸ޤ
 
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ʿäƤ٤夬Ƥäλϡ¿ιʼԤμξ褦䤯ʤȤΤˤʤäƤޤ

567ȤȤʤʤäƤޤ

ʻˡλƱ褦ʤΤǤ

٤ԹʤˤʤäƤޤȡɤƤ⡢̵ϴƤޤޤ

ꥰޥȥޥ䡼ȤؼԤ1967ǯˡԤä¸˰ʲΤ褦ʤΤޤ

ޤǽˡƨΤʤ˸ʰʲθ򥨥쥭Ȥޤˤޤ

ơ쥭ˡŵå̿ŪʤΤǤϤʤˤ٤Ϳ³ޤʤҤɤʤưʪԤǤ͡ˡ

ˡ쥭򡢣Ĥ

ŵåͿʣȰʲޤ

ȡ

餹˰ưǤ롢ŵåͿʤʣȰʲޤˡ

˰ưޤ

ˡŵåͿ³ʤäʤ顢

ΣŵåͿƤ⡢˰ʣ˰ưϤʤΤǤ

쥨쥭ϡŵåǡŵåƤ⡢ɤ뤳ȤǤʤפȤ̵ϴؽƤޤäƤ뤿ᡢ

ŵåƤ⡢ƨϤΣƨ褦ȤʤǤ͡

ǽϡŵåӤ뤿ӤˡǸϡäꤹȤޤͶưäȤޤ

̵ϴȤΤ⡢ؽˤäƿȤˤĤƤޤȤ¸̤ǡֳؽ̵ϴפȤޤ

ؽ̵ϴϡʹ֤оݤȤǤ⡢ǧƤȤޤ

ؽ̵ϴȤˤĤƤޤȡֲäƤʤפȤˤʤäƤޤäơߤͯޤ󤫤顢

Τ褦ʴФõ뤿ˡμʥȥ򤷤ʤФʤޤ

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ˡŪ׹Ϥμǧ˺Ŭ꽸
 
 
ˡԤʬ֥ɮԤɮƤޤ
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伺ԤθɤΤ褦˹ͤ뤫ȤȤԤΡָ°פȤޤ

磻ʡȤؼԤˤȡͤϸ°ʲ3ĤͤȤƤޤ

1.θʬˤΤˤΤ

2.θϥȥǽ

3.θ϶ݤ

ιͤ˴ŤȡּԤΤϡʬޤĤǽϤʤפȤƤޤȡ

1.Ū2.⡢ޤĤǽϤˤΤʤΤǡθΥȥԲǽפȤ׹ͤˤʤäƤޤ

֤äƤ̵̤פȷŤƤޤäơߤޤʤʤޤ

֤䡢ϤϤϤ­ʤäǡޤĤǽϤˤΤǤϤʤפȹͤȡ

ϤŪãǤ롣̤ϥȥǤ롣ĥäƤǤʤȤϤʤϤɬ롣פȤ׹ͤˤʤꡢߤäƤ뤳Ȥˤʤޤ

εˤ⤢ޤ褦ˡʬȤͯ夬١ʤؤǤϡȯŪưŤפȤޤˤϡ

ֻϤǤפȤʸϴself-efficacyˤɵ᤹뤳ȤˤȤƤޤ

ơХǥ塼ȤؼԤˤȡʸϴĤˡɬפʤΤΤҤȤĤȤơиפȤΤȤƤޤ

иȡθǤ뿮ǰȤƤμʸϴޤȤƤꡢդˤ줬ʤȸϴޤȤƤޤ

ǡֻʻ˹ʤиʤפȤϡޤλϡɥ㤤˹ʤƤߤơʾڤ㤤и̣äƤߤȤΤ⡢ߤ1ĤˡȻפޤ

乥ӻȤѤǤΤĽ꤬Ť֥ӥ̳ͥˡ̳R3顦2פȻפޤ

֥ӥ̳ͥˡ̳R˰Υڡ

λѤٶǯ³Ƥäϡ̤ٶʤƤ⡢ӥ̳ͥˡ̳RˡʰʲӥˡȤޤ2ʤܻؤΤǤϤʤȻפޤ

ϰϤΤʤʬϡλܤޤΨ46ǤΤǡμ¤Ϥ¤ֻǤ

λȾˤƤȻפ뾦ˡˡ⤸äٶǤǤΤạ̇̄ǤϡˡˡμϤ夵뤿μʤˤʤꤦǤϤʤȤפޤ

ʤӥˡ2˹ʤ줿ϡ־Ľǧӥͥˡ̳ѡȡפȤι椬Ϳޤ

ؼԤξϡӥˡ2Υϡɥ⤯⤢Ȼפޤ

ξ硢ιʤܻؤȡλ˰ƶͿǽ⤢ޤΤǡ

Τ褦и뤿ˤϡӥˡ3ŬǤϤʤȻפޤ

ιΨϡ68ǤΤǡ̤ٶƤλʤ顢ʬ˹ʤǤΤȻפޤ

̱ˡˡˡʳΥӥˡܤϡλΡְμܡкȤʤʬ⤢ꡢĻˤʤΤǤϤʤȤפޤ

ʤӥˡ3ʼԤˤϡ־Ľǧӥͥˡ̳꡼פȤι椬Ϳޤ

ӥˡ1ʾĽǧӥͥˡ̳ƥ֡ˤϡ

λΤиѤिμŪߥ󥰤ȤƤ˻»ܤޤ󤷡ǯ12Ǥˡ

Ƥϡ4ʸ񤭤ѤʤȤΤǡλȤϤΥ뤬礭ۤʤޤΨϡ89ȤΤǡ

⡢ӥˡ2ʼԤǤʤȼǤʤȤ¤ޤΤǡиѤिƻȤƤŬڤǤϤʤΤȻפޤ

иѤिƻȤƤϡŪɸ꤬ǤŬ٤κ񤵤Τ꤬˾ޤΤǤäơ

٤κ񤵤ΤΤϹޤʤǤ

ӥˡ1ϡλʸ塢ʤ륹륢åפΤ˼ȤΤ褤ΤǤϤʤȻפޤ

ߤ¾ˡȤƤϡ嵭Τ褦ʻΤϤϤݤȻפϡ

㤨С

֥ƥȤβڡޤǤäɤ򤷤顢ʬˤ˫ȤȤǡ鸫äģ֣ĤäƤ褦

ϵɸ줿顢ʬ˹äƾ夲褦

ֵҼƤ50񤤤顢Τ褤ͧͤͶäƿ˹ԤäƳڤ⤦

ȤȤ򤹤Τ褤ΤǤϤʤȻפޤ

ԡʿˡˤΤҤȤĤȤơ֥ȡ󡦥ΥߡˡפȤԡΤǤ

嵭Ϥ˻褦ʤΤǡ褦ˡִĥäʬˤ˫򤢤뤳ȤǡʬΰߤƤˡפǤ

ʰ츫ϼ餷פˡǤ졢빽̤ޤĥäʬˤ˫򤢤Ȥ԰٤ϡʤȤƤ򤷤פΤǤ

ˤƤ⡢ؽ̵ϴƤޤä硢ԤǤ֤ȡߤ㲼ФǤ

㲼ߤٸ夵뤿ΡǤǤϤʤŪʤ嵭Τ褦ˤĤޤΤǡ

Ѥʬο򥳥ȥ뤷ơ̵ϴؽߤ褦Ÿ뤳ȤɬפˤʤäƤΤǤϤʤȻפޤ

͵֥󥭥󥰤ˤ⻲äޤ

λʥ֥Хʡȥ꡼ο͵֥󥭥󥰥Хʡ򥯥åꤤޤ󥭥󥰥åפˤϤꤤޤ


͵֥󥭥󥰥Хʡ

ˤ֥ۤ¼ ʥ֥ Ȼ
 
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λѽҤΤҲ
 
ˡŪ׹Ϥμǧ˺Ŭ꽸
 
 
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λѽҤΤҲ
 
ˡŪ׹Ϥμ˺Ŭƥ
 
ֺ¹δܽ
 
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